Chiles belong to the genus Capsicum (Paprika) and these are among the Solanaceae or nightshades. Furthermore, there are more than 150 varieties, all of which taste differently. They range from fruity mild to fiery. Some chili are fleshier than others and some also have a thicker skin like the jalapeño chili peppers. They also differ in their size and color. Ripe chili peppers are mostly yellow, red, orange to red-brown, immature chilies are green.
The sharpness of the chilli depends on how much capsaicin contains a pod. This substance capsaicin is 90% in the white vagaries of the chili. The pulp of the pods is not so sharp, but it is aromatic. The flavor fades when the chili peppers are cooked. Thus, a clear, pure sharpness remains after cooking. The capsaicin releases on the tongue a heat or pain irritation, which is perceived by the trigeminal nerve. The tongue with its taste buds, which tastes for us, can not taste sharp, but only sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami (full-bodied taste).
The degree of sharpness of chili peppers is given in the Scoville unit, the scale being from 0 to 10.
Not everyone loves the sharpness of the chili right away. For us in Europe, the less keenly chilli - the spice peppers were popular. The spice peppers are available in different degrees of sharpness. They spice up many dishes with their fruity aroma and a light sharpness.
In Africa, Asia and India, on the other hand, a lot of really sharp food is consumed. During my time on the Ivory Coast and Cameroon, the traditional African sauces and dishes were mostly made with the sharp Habanero. Furthermore, many African spice mixtures are very spicy like for example Harissa.
Chili we prefer to sharpen food and do our body also something good. It is said the chilis build up the mucous membranes, mobilize the metabolism, improve the blood glucose levels and help against pain and inflammation.